The amount of amplification of input to output power often expressed as a multiplicative factor or in decibels.
Gain-to-Noise Temperature Ratio (G/T):
The figure of merit of a dish and LNA. The higher the G/T, the better the reception capabilities of an earth station.
A term used to describe the appearance of multiple TV images that is usually caused by reception of a signal via two different paths.
1000 MHz or one billion cycles per second.
A footprint pattern used by communication satellites targeting nearly 40% of the earth’s surface below. Many Intelsat satellites use global beams.
Unwanted microwave signals generated from the warm ground and detected by a dish.
Hall Effect Sensor:
A semiconductor device in which an output voltage is generated in response to the intensity of a magnetic field applied to a wire. In an actuator, the varying magnetic field is produced by the rotation of a permanent magnet past a thin wire. The pulses generated serve to count the number of rotations of the motor
A low-loss coaxial cable that has a continuous hard metal shield instead of a conductive braid around the outer perimeter. This type of cable was used in the pioneer days of satellite television.
The portion of a SMATV or MMDS system where all desired signals are received and processed for subsequent distribution.
A thick low-loss cable used at high frequencies; also known as hard-line.
An abbreviation for the frequency measurement of one cycle per second. Named after Heinrich Hertz, the German scientist who first described the properties of radio waves.
A 3-byte hexadecimal number which is used by the provider to address the smart card.
A 10-byte long hexadecimal number which is coded with the hex serial. The hexmasterkey is just a code which is used by the smart card to calculate the plainmasterkeyfrom the masterkey. Without the hexmasterkey, it is not possible to correctly update the plainmasterkey.
High Definition Television (HDTV):
An innovative television format having approximately twice the number of scan lines in order to improve picture resolution and viewing quality.
High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection. Copy-protection scheme developed by Intel to be used in conjunction with DVI and HDMI connections.
High-Definition Multimedia Interface. USB-like digital video connectivity standard designed as a successor to DVI; can transmit both uncompressed digital audio and video signals; protected by HDCP digital copy protection.
High-definition digital video disc. Several formats have been proposed for these high-capacity DVDs, including Blu-ray.
High Power Amplifier (HPA):
An amplifier used to amplify the uplink signal. Horizontal Blanking Pulse – The pulse that occurs between each horizontal scan line in an analogue television signal and extinguishes the beam illumination during the retrace period.
Horizontal Sync Pulse (HSP):
A 4.7 microsecond (in the PAL system) rectangular pulse riding on top of each horizontal blanking pulse. It synchronizes the horizontal scanning at the television set with that of the television camera.
A number of vertical lines (or pixels) that can be resolved from one side of an image to the other. While the vertical resolution of all analog video sources is the same (480 lines), the horizontal resolution varies according to the source. Some examples for typical sources: VHS VCRs (240 lines), analog TV broadcasts (330 lines), non-HDTV digital satellite TV (up to 380 lines), and DVD players (540 lines). DTV signals have horizontal resolution that ranges from 640 lines for SDTV to 1,280 lines (for 720p HDTV) or 1,920 lines (for 1080i HDTV).
Space where radio frequency systems reside. These include modulators, group delay equalizers, upconverters, high power amplifiers and combiner systems
A form of interference seen as horizontal bars or black regions passing across the field of a television screen.
One of the two color video signals which modulate the colour subcarrier. It represents those colours ranging from reddish orange to cyan.
IEEE 1394 – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 1394. Official designation of the FireWire digital connectivity standard.
Independent input memories – Feature found on newer TVs that automatically associates a separate picture memory slot–usually including contrast, brightness, sharpness, color, tint, and color temperature–with each input. Greatly eases optimization of picture parameters specifically for different devices.
Integrated HDTV tuner – The terrestrial ATSC high-definition tuner built into an HDTV, it allows the set to receive over-the-air HDTV broadcasts without having to attach a set-top box.
Interactive Digital Cable Ready – See Digital Cable Ready.
Interlaced scanning – Scan method used by the majority of televisions and the 1080i HDTV format. As opposed to progressive scanning in which the CRT’s electron beam scans or “paints” all lines at once, interlaced scanning TVs paint odd-numbered lines in succession, then go back and fill in the remaining even-numbered lines. This method is more prone to artifacts and less stable than progressive.
IRE – International Radio Engineers. In calibration, used to refer to different brightness levels on the grayscale. 20 IRE is quite dark, while 100 IRE is extremely bright.
The resistance to alternating current flow in an electrical circuit.
Pay Per View:
Impulse pay per view or interactive pay per view (ippv) is an extension of ordinary PPV. You no longer will be charged for a total event, but instead, you are charged for the time you spent using the service.
Seca uses so-called instruction bytes (INS) in order to communicate between CAMand smart card. These instructions are used for instance to request card- and provider data, authorization, ECM’sand EMM’s etc.
Integrated Decoder Access Control:
IDAC Integrated Receiver Decoder – IRD – A satellite receiver and decoder contained in one case Interference – An undesired signal intercepted by a TVRO that causes video and/or audio distortion.
Integrated Receiver Decoder (IRD):
An integrated satellite receiver/decoder.
The amount of signal energy lost when a device is inserted into a communication line. Also known as <169>feed through<170> loss.
A scanning technique to minimize picture flicker while conserving channel bandwidth. Even and odd numbered lines are scanned in separate fields both of which when combined paint one frame or complete picture.
Intermediate Frequency (IF):
A middle range frequency generated after downconversion in any electronic circuitry including a satellite receiver. The majority of all signal amplification, processing and filtering in a receiver occur in the IF range.
An organization, founded by Ir. den Toonder (hence the name). This organization develops systems for secure data distribution like PPV (pay per view) and IPPV(impulse pay per view).
The most well-known providers that use Irdeto for their transmissions, are Premiere World, Canal +, Stream and Nova.
A device that allows signals to pass unobstructed in one direction but which attenuates their strength in the reverse direction.
The amount of signal energy lost between two ports of a device. An example is a loss between the feed through a port and the tap/drop of a top-off device.
Type of video artifact that looks like a jagged edge as opposed to a smooth line. It often appears on diagonal lines in 30fps material.
Key compatible card groups:
These are card groups or provider groups, sharing the same keys.
One thousand cycles per second.
The microwave frequency band between approximately 11 and 13 GHz used in satellite broadcasting.
In TV, unit of measurement used to describe the color of light produced by the screen.
Feature found in front projectors designed to compensate for mounting situations when the centerline of the projector’s lens is not perpendicular to the screen. Although keystone correction allows greater mounting flexibility, it almost always reduces apparent resolution and makes the image dimmer
Liquid-crystal display. System used on many DTVs, clocks, answering machines, handheld organizers, camcorders, and personal computers. Liquid crystals are sandwiched between two glass plates. Minor temperature variations are introduced to particular points in the display using pinpoint electric charges, illuminating or causing the crystals to change colors in predetermined patterns.
LCD TV – A television that employs a liquid-crystal display screen rather than a CRT; used in small, personal TVs, portable video equipment, front projectors, and larger flat-panel displays. An LCD projector uses a lamp to shine light through liquid-crystal panels, then through mirrors and lenses to the screen.
LCoS – Liquid Crystal on Silicon. Whereas LCDs uses liquid crystals sandwiched between two glass plates, this newer hybrid projection TV technology employs liquid crystals coated on a silicon chip, which results in easier, lower-cost manufacturing and higher-resolution images.
Letterbox – A wide-screen movie on DVD, laserdisc, or videotape presented in its original theatrical wide-screen width on a standard square 4:3 TV. The film is shown with black bars above and below the picture area to create the wider, theatrical image. Often used to indicate a non anamorphic DVD.
line-doubler/tripler/multiplier – Technology used in televisions to create a higher-quality picture by increasing the number of lines of resolution displayed; it can be a separate device or a feature built-in TVs, primarily DTVs. A poor-quality line-doubler can actually degrade the image from lower-resolution analog or digital signals.
Lumens – The unit of measure for the light output of a projector. Different manufacturers may rate their projectors’ light output differently, and these numbers are usually inflated. “Peak lumens” is measured by illuminating an area of about 10 percent of the screen size in the center of the display. This measurement ignores the reduction in brightness at the sides and corners of the screen. See also ANSI lumens
Luminance – Portion of a television transmission that controls brightness of the red, green, and blue proportions in a television picture. The standard luminance setting in a picture is 30 percent red, 60 percent green, and 10 percent blue. These numbers are adjusted to produce varying colors, grays, whites, and blacks.
An amplifier in a transmission line that boosts the strength of a signal.
An active or passive device that divides a signal into two or more signals containing all the original information. A passive splitter feeds an attenuated version of the input signal to the output ports. An active splitter amplifies the input signal to overcome the splitter loss.
A device used to supply a stable single frequency to an upconverter or a downconverter. The local oscillator signal is mixed with the carrier wave to change its frequency.
The process of recording the information contained in the data stream between CAMand smart card. The data stream contains, among others, the keys that are used by the provider to manipulate the card.
Low Noise Amplifier (LNA):
A device that receives and amplifies the weak satellite signal reflected by a dish via a feed. C-band LNAs typically have their noise characteristics quoted as noise temperatures rated in degrees Kelvin. Ku-band LNA noise characteristics are usually expressed as a noise figure in decibels.
Low Noise Block (LNB/LNBF):
LNB is short for Low Noise Block. Or to be even more accurate Low Noise Block Downconverter. An LNB converts the frequency of the captured satellite signal to another frequency. A frequency that can be transported via Coax cable, to be precise. In-home satellite systems, the Ku-band is converted to a much lower frequency. Indeed, through the use of an LNB.
LNBF is short for Low Noise Block Feedhorn. This is an LNB in which the feedhorn is already fully integrated. A feedhorn will bundle the energy, captured by your satellite dish. The bundled energy can then be processed by the LNB, much better.
Low Noise Converter (LNC):
An LNA and a conventional downconverter housed in one weatherproof box. This device converts one channel at a time. Channel selection is controlled by the satellite receiver. The typical IF for LNCs is 70 MHz.