A complete satellite receiving or transmitting station including the dish, electronics and all associated equipment necessary to receive or transmit satellite signals. Also known as a ground station.
ECM is short for Entitlement Control Message. These are commands which are used to control the working of your card. ECM’s are always sent as packets. Such a packet is called a Control Word(CW) and it contains coded keys, ID’s etc. needed to decode the signal. In other words, the ECM identifies the service and the conditions that have to be met in order to use that service. Providers will also use fake ECM’s to disable pirate cards. That is why a lot of people translate ECM as Electronic Counter Measure.
Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP):
A measure of the signal strength that a satellite transmits towards the earth below. The EIRP is highest at the centre of the beam and decreases at angles away from the boresight.
Electronic Program Guide (EPG):
The Electronic Program Guide is broadcasted along with all other data.
Elementary Stream (ES):
A stream carrying a single stream of, typically of presentation data, such as a single audio or video data stream
Elementary Stream Clock Reference (ESCR):
Elementary Stream Clock ReferenceA 42-bit counter clocked at 27 MHz which is used for synchronizing data
The vertical angle measured from the horizon up to a target satellite.
EMM is short for Entitlement Management Messages. EMM’s are composed of the information, contained in the SASand will always be sent together with the ECM. EMM’s contain information about the subscriber and the status of the subscription. They are used to transfer information about authorization, but they will also carry new keys, or modify or delete existing keys.
An entity that compressed a single data stream
Specific consumer electronics industry IEEE 1394 digital video cable standard; also called FireWire.
Generic term for artificial edges created around onscreen objects. With already-sharp, high-resolution sources such as DVD and HDTV, it actually obscures detail and increases noise. Scan-velocity modulation circuits, a TV’s sharpness control, or the source itself (such as a DVD) are some possible sources of edge enhancement.
Enhanced Definition Television (see 480p). Also used to describe plasma and other fixed-pixel displays that have 852×480 resolution. They can show an HDTV image but don’t provide as much detail as higher-resolution displays.
The modulation of an uplink carrier with a triangular waveform. This technique disperses the carrier energy over a wider bandwidth than otherwise would be the case in order to limit the maximum energy compared to that transmitted by an unclamped carrier. This triangular waveform is removed by a clamp circuit in a satellite receiver.
EPG is short for Electronic Program Guide.
A series of six pulses occurring before and after the serrated vertical sync pulse to ensure proper interlacing. The equalizing pulses are inserted at twice the horizontal scanning frequency.
An event is one particular transmission of a program. An event is known by its name, the service on which it is transmitted, the date and time of its broadcast and possibly additional information such as a part number. Events may be re-broadcast if the events are different
satellite TV glossary & definitions – Part 4
A standard RF connector used to link coax cables with electronic devices.
The ratio of a dish’s focal length to diameter. It describes dish depth.
A device that collects microwave signals reflected from the surface of a dish. It is mounted at the focus of all prime focus parabolic dishes.
One half of a complete TV picture or frame, composed of 325 scanning lines. In the PAL broadcast system, there are 50 fields per second.
A file set is a complete package of software and keys, needed to program a smart card. How the file set is composed, is dependent on the type of card it is made for. For PIC cards, a file set contains 2 files (the PIC file and the eeprom file). For AVR type cards like the Fun- and Jupiter cards, the file set contains 2 or 3 files (a flash file for the processor, an external eeprom file and sometimes an internal eeprom file).
False contouring –
An artefact common to fixed-pixel displays that produce splotchy, distinct sections in what should be gradual gradations of color or shadows. Also referred to as solarization and posterization.
Bidirectional high-speed digital video/audio and data interface technology adopted by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Unlike other video connectivity standards, FireWire requires software programming to ensure compatibility between devices; the FireWire jack on most DVD recorders, for instance, is programmed to be compatible only when connected to a digital camcorder. FireWire connections between HDTV devices, such as a digital cable box and an HDTV recorder, are controlled by 5C DTCP copy-protection technology. FireWire is Apple Computer’s version of the IEEE 1394 interface and is now administered by a consortium that includes Apple and several other companies; sometimes referred to as i.Link (Sony’s name), DISH Wire (by Echostar), and EIA-775.
Fixed-pixel display –
Digital televisions that use discrete pixels to create a picture image, such as plasma, LCD, DLP, LCoS, or any non-CRT display device. In the case of DLP, for instance, each pixel is represented by one of the hundreds of thousands of tiny mirrors mounted on a DLP chip.
Flat-panel TV –
Video display typically using gas plasma or LCD technology and that measures only a few inches thick.
Measurement of light emitted or reflected from a perfectly diffused surface; used to rate brightness in projection TV sets; the higher the rating, the brighter the picture. One foot-lambert is equal to the relative reflected light radiated by one candle over a one-square-foot area. This measurement is often misleading and misused on projector spec sheets.
Frames per second. The number of individual still pictures that pass by every second to create a moving image. The film runs at 24fps, while video, including DVD, runs at 30fps. To compensate for the difference, 2:3 pull-down detection is used.
Front projection – Type of TV system in which the picture is projected onto a reflective screen or even a wall. The larger the picture, the more visible the pixels or scan lines and the darker the image. CRT systems use three tubes (red, blue, and green), whereas LCD and DLP uses a single projection lens.
Gain – Measures the light-reflecting ability of a projection screen. The higher the number, the greater the amount of light reflected back to the viewer.
Geek box – CNET’s way of providing at-a-glance Labs results for TV reviews.
Geometric distortion –
Unnatural bowing of straight lines or other distortion of shapes, especially at the sides and corners in a TV picture.
Geometric linearity –
The ability of a television to reproduce lines, shapes, and sizes accurately.
Multiple overlaid TV images noticeable around the edges of objects; occurs when an antenna picks up the original TV signal along with duplicate signals reflected by tall buildings and other similar obstacles. DTV broadcasts can suffer from ghosting, which is sometimes called multipath.
The range of grey at different intensities from completely black to completely white. Since colour information is overlaid atop black-and-white information in a composite, S-Video, and component-video signal, the ideal is to set the entire range of the grayscale as close to the standard of 6,500K as possible to preserve color fidelity.
Grayscale variation – Geek box term. The average variation above or below 6,500K, measured on the grayscale from 20 to 100 IRE in 10-IRE increments.
A device used to reject all but a specified range of frequencies. A bandpass filter allows only those signals within a given band to be communicated. A rejection filter, the mirror image of a bandpass filter, eliminates those signals within a specified band but passes all other frequencies.
The firmware is the operating system software for the receiver
An abbreviation for frequency modulation Focal Length – The distance from the reflective surface of a parabola to the point at which incoming satellite signals are focused, the focal point. Footprint – The geographic area towards which a satellite downlink antenna directs its signal. The measure of the strength of this footprint is the EIRP.
Forward Error Correction (FEC):
FEC is a technique for improving the accuracy of data transmission. Excess bits are included in the outgoing data stream so that error correction algorithms can be applied upon reception. On satellite links, this is in the form of Reed-Solomon and convoluted Viterbi coding implemented at modulator/demodulator level.
One complete TV picture, composed of two fields and a total of 525 and 625 scanning lines in NTSC and PAL systems, respectively.
The number of vibrations per second of an electrical or electromagnetic signal expressed in cycles per second or Hertz. Front-end Processor – FEP